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LPIC 102 Detailed Objectives

Exam 102: Detailed Objectives

This is a required exam for LPI certification Level 1. It covers basic skills for the Linux Professional that are common across all distributions of Linux.

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: These are the current 102 objectives, which are valid effective 2006-01-01. The 102 exams which are delivered through test centers all over the world, will reflect these updated objectives for English in early 2006 and all other languages by late 2006/early 2007. Candidates should be prepared to take exams based upon these objectives after 1Q2006.

Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights range roughly from 1 to 10 and indicate the relative importance of each objective. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

Maintainer: Dimitrios "Taki" Bogiatzoules, Product Developer
Last modification: 2005-12-31

Topic 105: Kernel

1.105.1 Manage/Query kernel and kernel modules at runtime
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a kernel and kernel loadable modules.

Key knowledge area(s):
Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules.
Manually load and unload kernel modules.
Determine when modules can be unloaded.
Determine what parameters a module accepts.
Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep
/etc/modules.conf
/etc/modprobe.conf
depmod
insmod
lsmod
rmmod
modinfo
modprobe
uname

1.105.2 Reconfigure, build and install a custom kernel and kernel modules
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to customize, build and install a kernel and kernel loadable modules from source.

Key knowledge area(s):
Customize the current kernel configuration.
Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.
Install a new kernel and any modules.
Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/usr/src/linux/*
/usr/src/linux/.config
/lib/modules/kernel-version/*
/boot/*
make
make targets: all, config, menuconfig, xconfig, gconfig oldconfig, modules, install, modules_install, depmod, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg

Topic 106: Boot, Initialization, Shutdown and Runlevels

1.106.1 Boot the system
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.

Key knowledge area(s):
Give commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time.
Check boot events in the log files.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/var/log/messages
/etc/modules.conf
/etc/modprobe.conf
dmesg
LILO
GRUB

1.106.2 Change runlevels and shutdown or reboot system
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the runlevel of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevel and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default runlevel.

Key knowledge area(s):
Set the default runlevel.
Change between run levels including single user mode.
Shutdown and reboot from the command line.
Alert users before switching runlevels or other major system event.
Properly terminate processes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/inittab
shutdown
init

Topic 107: Printing

1.107.2 Manage printers and print queues
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Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs.

Key knowledge area(s):
Configure and monitor a print server.
Manage user print queues.
Troubleshoot general printing problems.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
/etc/printcap
lpc
lpq
lprm
lp

1.107.3 Print files
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Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and manipulate print jobs.

Key knowledge area(s):
Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues.
Convert text files to postscript for printing.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
a2ps
lpr
lpq

1.107.4 Install and configure local and remote printers
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Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure local and remote printers.

Key knowledge area(s):
Install a printer daemon.
Install and configure a print filter.
Make local and remote printers accessible for a Linux system, including postscript, non-postscript and Samba printers.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
/etc/printcap
/var/spool/cups/
/var/spool/lpd/*/
lpd

Topic 108: Documentation

1.108.1 Use and manage local system documentation
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use and administer the man facility and the material in /usr/share/doc/.

Key knowledge area(s):
Find relevant man pages.
Search man page sections.
Find commands and man pages related to them.
Configure access to man sources and the man system.
Prepare man pages for printouts.
Use the system documentation stored in /usr/share/doc/ and determine what documentation to keep in /usr/share/doc/.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
MANPATH man
apropos
whatis

1.108.2 Find Linux documentation on the Internet
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to find and use Linux documentation on the internet.

Key knowledge area(s):
This objective includes using Linux documentation at sources such as the Linux Documentation Project (LDP), vendor and third-party websites, newsgroups, newsgroup archives and mailing lists.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
Not applicable

1.108.5 Notify users on system-related issues
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Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.

Key knowledge area(s):
Automate communication with users through logon messages.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/issue
/etc/issue.net
/etc/motd

Topic 109: Shells, Scripting, Programming and Compiling

1.109.1 Customize and use the shell environment
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Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users' needs.

Key knowledge area(s):
Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell.
Write BASH functions for frequently used sequences of commands.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
Internal BASH functions and commands
~/.bash_profile
~/.bash_login
~/.profile
~/.bashrc
~/.bash_logout
~/.inputrc
function
export
env
set
lists
seq
unset

1.109.2 Customize or write simple scripts
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new BASH scripts.

Key knowledge area(s):
Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests).
Use command substitution.
Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command.
Perform conditional mailing to the superuser.
Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line.
Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
for
while
test
chmod

Topic 111: Administrative Tasks

1.111.1 Manage users and group accounts and related system files
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.

Key knowledge area(s):
Add, modify and remove users and groups.
Manage user/group info in password/group databases.
Correctly manage shadow password/group databases using the appropriate tools.
Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/group
/etc/gshadow
chage
gpasswd
groupadd
groupdel
groupmod
passwd
useradd
userdel
usermod

1.111.2 Tune the user environment and system environment variables
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles.

Key knowledge area(s):
Set environment variables.
Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts.
Set command search path with the proper directory.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/profile
/etc/skel
env
export
set
unset

1.111.3 Configure and use system log files to meet administrative and security needs
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and manage system logs.

Key knowledge area(s):
Manage the type and level of information logged.
Manually scan log files for notable activity.
Monitor log files.
Automatically rotate and archive log files.
Track down problems noted in log files.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/syslog.conf
/var/log/*
logrotate
tail -f

1.111.4 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs to run in the future
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.

Key knowledge area(s):
Manage cron and at jobs.
Configure user access to cron and at services.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/anacrontab
/etc/at.deny
/etc/at.allow
/etc/crontab
/etc/cron.allow
/etc/cron.deny
/var/spool/cron/*
at
atq
atrm
crontab

1.111.5 Maintain an effective data backup strategy
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to plan a backup strategy and backup filesystems automatically to various media.

Key knowledge area(s):
Dump a raw device to a file or vice versa.
Perform partial and manual backups.
Verify the integrity of backup files.
Partially or fully restore backups.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
cpio
dd
dump
restore
tar

1.111.6 Maintain system time
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.

Key knowledge area(s):
Set the system date and time.
Set the BIOS clock to the correct time in UTC.
Configure the correct timezone.
Configure NTP including correcting for clock drift.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/usr/share/zoneinfo
/etc/timezone
/etc/localtime
/etc/ntp.conf
/etc/ntp.drift
date
hwclock
ntpd
ntpdate

Topic 112: Networking Fundamentals

1.112.1 Fundamentals of TCP/IP
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of network fundamentals.

Key knowledge area(s):
Demonstrate an understanding of IP-addresses including but not limited to:
Network masks, for example: determine the network part and the broadcast address for a host based on its address and subnet mask in "dotted quad" or abbreviated notation or determine the network address, broadcast address and netmask when given an IP-address and number of bits in the address that are used to identify the host.
Demonstrate an understanding of the network classes and classless subnets (CIDR) and the reserved addresses for private network use.
Understand the function and application of a default route.
Understand basic internet protocols (IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP) and the more common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 119, 139, 143, 161).
Basic knwoledge about the differences between IPV4 and IPV6.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/services
ftp
telnet
host
ping
dig
traceroute
whois

1.112.3 TCP/IP configuration and troubleshooting
Comment this objective!
Weight: 7

Description: Candidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings and operational status for various network interfaces.

Key knowledge area(s):
Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces.
Change, view, or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually.
Configure a DHCP client.
Basic TCP/IP host configuration.
Debug problems associated with the network configuration.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/HOSTNAME or /etc/hostname
/etc/hosts
/etc/networks
/etc/host.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
ifconfig
ifup & ifdown
route
dhcpcd
dhclient
pump
host
hostname
domainname
dnsdomainname
netstat
ping
traceroute
tcpdump
Network scripts run during system initialization.

1.112.4 Configure Linux as a PPP client
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Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should understand the basics of the PPP protocol and be able to configure and use PPP for outbound connections.

Key knowledge area(s):
Define the chat sequence to connect (given a login example) and the setup commands to be run automatically when a PPP connection is made.
Initialize and terminate a PPP connection, with a modem, ISDN or ADSL with the appropriate scripts.
Set PPP to automatically reconnect if disconnected.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/ppp/options.*
/etc/ppp/peers/*
/etc/wvdial.conf
/etc/ppp/ip-up
/etc/ppp/ip-down
wvdial
ppp

Topic 113: Networking Services

1.113.1 Configure and manage xinetd, inetd and related services
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Weight: 4

Description: Configure and manage xinetd, inetd and related services.

Key knowledge area(s):
Configure which services are available through (x)inetd.
Manually start, stop and restart internet services.
Configure basic network services including ssh and ftp.
Set a service to run as another user instead of the default in (x)inetd configuration.
Basic knowledge of tcpwrappers to allow or deny services on a host-by-host basis.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hosts.allow
/etc/hosts.deny
/etc/services
/etc/xinetd.conf
/etc/xinetd.d/
/etc/inetd.conf
/var/log/xinetd.log

1.113.2 Operate and perform basic configuration of Mail Tranfer Agent (MTA)
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to operate and perform basic configuration of MTA. Advanced custom configurations not included.

Key knowledge area(s):
Modify simple parameters in MTA configuration files.
Create e-mail aliases.
Manage the e-mail queue.
Start and stop MTA.
Configure e-mail forwarding.
Check for and close an open relay on the mailserver.
Perform basic troubleshooting of MTA.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
Configuration files, documentation and commands for: postfix, qmail, exim and sendmail
/etc/mail/*
~/.forward
sendmail emulation layer commands
newaliases

1.113.3 Operate and perform basic configuration of Apache
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to operate and perform basic configuration of Apache. Advanced custom configurations not included.

Key knowledge area(s):
Modify simple parameters in Apache configuration files.
Start and stop httpd and restart after modification to configuration.
Arrange for automatic starting of httpd upon boot.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/apache2/
httpd.conf
apache2ctl
apachectl
httpd

1.113.4 Properly manage the NFS and SAMBA daemons
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should know how to manage the NFS, smb and nmb daemons.

Key knowledge area(s):
Mount remote filesystems using NFS.
Configure NFS for exporting local filesystems.
Start, stop and restart the NFS server.
Install and configure Samba using the included GUI tools (swat) or direct edit of the /etc/smb.conf file (Note: this deliberately excludes advanced NT domain issues but includes simple sharing of home directories and printers, as well as correctly setting the nmbd as a WINS client).

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/exports
/etc/fstab
/etc/smb.conf
mount
umount

1.113.5 Setup and configure basic DNS services
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure basic DNS services.

Key knowledge area(s):
Configure hostname lookups and troubleshoot problems with local caching-only name server.
Demonstrate an understanding of the domain registration and DNS translation process.
Understanding configuration files for BIND8 and BIND9.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hosts
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/named.conf
named

1.113.7 Set up secure shell (OpenSSH)
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Weight: 4

Description: The candidate should be able to obtain and configure OpenSSH.

Key knowledge area(s):
Perform basic OpenSSH installation and troubleshooting.
Configure sshd to start at system boot.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/hosts.allow
/etc/hosts.deny
/etc/nologin
/etc/ssh/sshd_config
/etc/ssh_known_hosts
/etc/sshrc
sshd
ssh-keygen

Topic 114: Security

1.114.1 Perform security administration tasks
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Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.

Key knowledge area(s):
Configure tcpwrappers.
Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set.
Verify packages.
Set or change user passwords and password aging information.
Update binaries as recommended by CERT, BUGTRAQ and/or distribution's security alerts.
Demonstrate basic knowledge of iptables.
Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_*
find
iptables
passwd
socket
nmap
netstat

1.114.2 Setup host security
Comment this objective!
Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.

Key knowledge area(s):
Configure syslog with an eye to security.
Set up and manage shadow passwords.
Set up a e-mail alias for root's e-mail.
Turn off network services not in use.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
/etc/xinetd.d/*
/etc/xinetd.conf
/etc/inet.d/*
/etc/inetd.conf
/etc/nologin
/etc/passwd
/etc/shadow
/etc/syslog.conf

1.114.3 Setup user level security
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Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to configure user level security. Tasks include limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.

Key knowledge area(s):
Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
quota
usermod
ulimit

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